In Software Takes Command (2013) Manovich explores the concept of media independent techniques. He defines them as: ‘general concepts translated into algorithms’.
As a 4th media independent technique I would suggest connectivity: the ability for a user to connect or subscribe to a particular website, whether through the means of being informed via email, subscribing to a feed, or following or ‘liking’ a page on social media. This is useful for both the user and the creator as it allows the user to know when new information is available on a site of interest and it allows the sender to stay connected to the retriever which increases the chances of their content being viewed or website to be visited. Connectivity helps users establish a relationship with certain websites or companies.